Vocabulary:

  1. A tempo- return to the original tempo after some deviation 
  2. A cappella- without instrumental accompaniment 
  3. Accent mark- symbols that indicate a note is strongly played or sung 
  4. Accidentals- symbol used to raise or lower a given pitch by 1 or 2 semi-tones, or to cancel a previous sign or part of a key signature 
  5. Al fine- to the end, generally used after a repetition 
  6. Allargando- slowing of tempo, usually with increasing volume; most frequently occurs toward the end of a piece 
  7. Allegretto- slightly slower than allegro, often implying lighter texture and character as well 
  8. Allegro con spirito- fast tempo with spirit 
  9. Amabile- sweet, loveable 
  10. Andante- rather slow, at a moderate walking speed 
  11. Arpeggio- the notes of the chord played in succession to one another, rather than simultaneously; a broken chord 
  12. Atonal- music that lacks a tonal center; absence of key 
  13. Augmented- raised or enlarged. Generally refers to the raising of a pitch by one half-step 
  14. Bel canto- “beautiful singing”; an Italian Opera term 
  15. Binary form- AB- form of a composition that has two distinct sections 
  16. Cadenza- an improvised or written-out ornamental passage performed by a soloists usually near the final cadence 
  17. Caesura- grand pause; an interruption or break in the line 
  18. Cantabile- in a singing style; singable 
  19. Chromatic- motion by half steps; also describes harmony or melody that employs some of the sequential 12 pitches (semi-tones) in an octave 
  20. Coda- a passage that brings a piece of music to its conclusion; an ending 
  21. Concerto- composition for instruments in which a solo instrument is set against an orchestral ensemble 
  22. D. C. or Da Capo- repeat from the beginning of the composition 
  23. Diminished- lowered, or reduced; generally refers to the lowering of a pitch chromatically by one half step 
  24. Diminuendo- gradually reduce volume, getting softer 
  25. Divisi- performers singing the same part are divided to sing different parts
  26. Dolce- sweetly, usually also softly 
  27. Espressivo- to play or sing with expression 
  28. Falsetto- type of vocal phonation that enables the singer to sing notes beyond the normal vocal range. 
  29. Fermata- a pause or hold 
  30. Fortessimo- very loud 
  31. Grave- solemn, with dignity 
  32. Grazioso- graceful 
  33. Half-step- a semi-tone. There are 12 half-steps in an octave
  34. Harmonic minor- a minor scale with a raised 7th
  35. Interval- the relationship between two pitches, the distance between an upper and a lower pitch
  36. Key signature- sharps or flats at the beginning of each staff to indicate which pitches are to be raised or lowered from their natural state during the piece
  37. Largo- very slow and broad
  38. Legato- to play or sing in a smooth, connected manner
  39. Leading tone- the seventh degree of the diatonic scale, when it is only a half-step below the tonic, gives the feeling of wanting to move up to the tonic
  40. Leggiero- lightly
  41. Lunga- a long pause that is determined by the performer or director
  42. Marcato- marked, stressed
  43. Meno mosso- less motion
  44. Meter- indicated by a time signature, can be simple or compound
  45. Mezzo forte- medium loud
  46. Mezzo piano- medium soft
  47. Misterioso- play or sing in a mysterious manner
  48. Motif- a short musical idea or melodic theme, usually shorter than a musical phrase
  49. Niente- dying away to nothing
  50. Octave- an interval eight diatonic scale degrees a pitch. Two notes an octave apart have the same letter name, and form the most consonant interval possible. 
  51. Opera- a major vocal work that involves theatrical elements
  52. Opus- a creative work, numbered to designate the order of the composer’s works
  53. Oratorio- large scale musical composition on a sacred subject. 
  54. Pesante- heavy, ponderous
  55. Perdendosi- gradually dying away, softer and softer
  56. Phrase- a single musical idea or element which is often defined as a repeated, rhythmic pattern, or a melodic contour
  57. Poco pui mosso- a little more motion
  58. Portamento- special manner of singing where the voice glides from one tone to the next through all the intermediate pitches
  59. Presto- very fast; faster than allegro
  60. Premo- first or upper part
  61. Rallentando- gradually slowing down
  62. Rondo form ABACA- form of a composition that has a recurring “A” section
  63. Rubato- Making the established pulse flexible by accelerating and slowing down the tempo; an expressive device
  64. Senza- without
  65. Sequence- the repetition of a phrase at different pitch levels using the same or similar intervals
  66. Sforzando- strongly accented; forced
  67. Simile- continue to perform in a similar manner
  68. Slur- curved line that indicates to sing or play in a legato manner; without separation
  69. Solfege- a system used for teaching sight-singing (Do-Re-Mi) 
  70. Sotto voce- Softly; with subdued sound; performed in an undertone
  71. Sostenuto- in a sustained manner
  72. Staccato- detached; crisply played
  73. Strophic- describes a song where the stanzas are all sung to the same music
  74. Subito- suddenly; quickly
  75. Tempo primo- the original speed
  76. Tenuto- fully sustained; occasionally even a bit longer than the note value requires.
  77. Tessitura- most widely used range of pitches in a piece of music
  78. Triad- three note chord consisting of the root, third, and fifth
  79. Tutti- in a choral work, would indicate all voices
  80. Vivace- lively; briskly


Here are some helpful websites to help you with your sight reading & Theory skills:

https://sightreadingfactory.com

http://www.musictheory.net

http://fva.net/all-state/sight-reading/

http://www.musictechteacher.com/music_quizzes/music_quizzes.htm